Minted in 44 BCE, this denarius features not only the momentous occasion of the first living Roman’s head on coinage, but also Caesar’s most important – and controversial – title: Perpetual Dictator. Both turning points represented on this coin are illustrative of how far Caesar had pushed the boundaries of power in Rome. In the Roman Republic, the cursus honorum (the “course of offices”) was a series of administrative and military positions men attained as they climbed in public influence. The senatorial class held it as vital not only to their own legacies and families, but also to the proper functioning of a republic. Caesar had diluted their status by increasing the number of senators, and even including in their number provincial members – an affront to traditionalists. Note that here he is portrayed veiled, probably an indication of his role as Pontifex Maximus. Further, he claimed for himself many of the titles and offices which the men hoped and worked towards themselves, and the status of dictator made plain that he officially possessed what he had already asserted de facto: absolute power. Formerly limited to only exceptional circumstances and for no longer than six months (and thus existing on the periphery of the cursus honorum as a most remarkable honor), Caesar was now – for the rest of his life – sole dictator. Sixty senatorial conspirators would murder him in the same year this coin was minted. KHK.