This coin comes from a series of three types (or two types with one minor variant) issued by the praetors Lucius Cestius and Gaius Norbanus in 43 BCE. Unfortunately, the historical significance of this coin is unclear and subject to debate. The debate concerns whether this coin was issued against Octavian or in the interest of Octavian. In either case, the bust of Africa, identified by the elephant skin that she is wearing, seems to be a reference to the African legions that were deployed (unsuccessfully) against Octavian for the defense of Rome. The curule chair symbolizes imperium, while the Corinthian helmet is a symbol of Minerva (the variant of this coin depicts snakes, another symbol of Minerva). Though this large gold issue was struck by decree of the Senate according to the initials SC on the reverse of the coin, it is possible that the Senate would not have had enough money at this point in time to be held solely responsible for the issue, since, according to Cicero, the treasury of the city of Rome was empty in 43 after Octavian and Brutus diverted the funds from the provinces for their own use. Reina Callier 2011.