Octavian minted this denarius after defeating Antony and Cleopatra, his last remaining major rivals, at the Battle of Actium in 31 BCE. Not only did Octavian eliminate the most pressing threats to his power, he also came into possession of Cleopatra’s territory of Egypt, which was the most lucrative of the area. The reverse features the arch that was built between the Temple of Divine Julius and the Temple of Castor to celebrate the victory -- two significant connections that must have alluded to even more magnificent feats to come. On the obverse, Octavian still appears youthful, and has not yet been given the title Augustus, which he received in 27 BCE by the senate. KHK.