After the battle of Mutina in the summer of 43 BC, Octavian demanded one of the consulships left vacant by the deaths of Hirtius and Pansa. The senate refused his request, so, after a short time in Northern Italy, Octavian marched on Rome. He encountered no opposition in taking the city, and a short while later he was elected consul. This exceedingly rare aureus was struck in the brief period between Octavian’s march on Rome in July 43 BC and the formation of the second triumvirate with Antony and Lepidus in the October of that same year. It is also worth noting that the depiction of Octavian on this coin marks the first time a living man was depicted on an aureus, a trend that would continue throughout the imperial period. Jonathan Gress 2011.