This silver denarius, from 46 BCE, was minted under Julius Caesar, two years before his assassination. The title of “dictator” on the obverse represented an office formerly reserved for times of emergency which granted its holder absolute power. Caesar, however, had taken this office for more than the traditional six-month limit and, as the legend makes clear, for several years in succession. Despite this almost unlimited power, he was not granted the unique privilege of minting coins with his own image until shortly before his death – this explains why the coin bears the image of Ceres, goddess of agriculture, on the obverse. The reverse has the implements of his appointments as Pontifex Maximus, high priest of Rome (the culullus, a horn-shaped ritual vessel, the aspergillum, a holy-water sprinkler, and a jug, presumably for pouring lustrations) and as augur (the lituus, augural staff). Both offices are also mentioned in the reverse legend. The coin is intended to demonstrate Caesar’s pietas, respect for the gods and the old ways of Rome. Solomon Klein 2011.